When the first settlers came, Canada was all wilderness. There were no cities, there were no roads, no malls, no schools, no farms. There was just wilderness, as far as the eye can see and beyond.
What surrounded them were forests, full of trees, and hills, which often had many mini forests on the top. At first, all the settlers found were miles of forest. Then they found indian villages, where they indians did all of their work. The indians worked with the land, as in farming, forestry, etc. Most of their things were made from things that came from the land.
The first settlers came from Scandinavia and then people from parts of Europe followed. The settlers were confronted by a harsh, never before seen land, and many stayed, but went back. But, when the news of the furs came out, swarms of people flocked from Europe to get their hands on the skins of these animals. Initially, they came to find the Orient and India , but found North America instead. That is why the first people seen on North America are called indians, the settlers thought they had found India and called the natives indians.
When they first settled, the settlers had NOTHING except what they had brought with them on the boats. They did not have many weapons, tools, or medical assistance, but the settlers were strong willed and persistent, and they survived. Most of the settlers were self reliant, and in top physical condition. They built small houses to conserve time, as the winter was coming.
The indians taught the people how to do many things. The settlers had brought over the concept of farming, and the indians taught them how to tap maple sugar, farm the new land, make pemmican, (which is a ground up mixture of beef and berries) and forms of wilderness survival. (clothes for the extreme cold, etc.) Pemmican was an important source of vitamin C in the winter as fruits and vegetables were scarce in winter, so people relied on pemmican to keep up their vitamin c. Fresh fruits and vegetables rotted, but pemmican lasted. Many settlers died of vitamin c deficiency.
The settlers also brought with them the knowledge of tools. Their tools included axes, spears, assorted knives, and fire. To conserve space in houses they made a separate sleeping floor. The carpenter was a major force in helping the settlers stay alive, as he made many tools as which the settlers relied on along with the blacksmith. (nails, spoons, etc.)